Upper School

Science

Grade 7 Science

Seventh-grade science is part of a two-year junior high Science curriculum. Students use a variety of classroom and laboratory investigations to develop scientific knowledge and critical thinking.  The focus of seventh-grade science is on life science, physical science (Chemistry), scientific inquiry, technology, and ways of knowing.   Lab experiences include investigations into scientific inquiry, cell organelles, mitosis, genetics, computational biology, and field biology.  Combined with the eighth-grade curriculum, students will be well prepared for high school science.

Textbook:
Title: Integrated iScience: Leopard (Year Two)
Authors: Biggs, Feather, Fisher, and Ortleb
Publisher: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2012

Units of Study:

The Nature of Science

  1. Scientific explanations
  2. Scientific method

Life: Structure and Function

  1. Classifying and exploring life
  2. Cell structure and function
  3. From a cell to an organism
  4. Reproduction of organisms

Life: Changes and Interactions

  1. Genetics
  2. The environment and change over time
  3. Plant processes and reproduction
  4. Interaction of living things

Matter, Energy, and Motion

  1. Foundations of Chemistry
  2. The periodic table
Grade 8 Science

Eighth-grade science is part of a two-year junior high Science curriculum. Students use a variety of classroom and laboratory investigations to develop scientific knowledge, critical thinking, and the ability to perform scientific research.  Eighth-grade science covers a variety of topics in physical science, earth & space science, and life science. Combined with the seventh-grade curriculum, students will be well prepared for high school science.

Textbook:
Title: Integrated iScience, Course 3
Editors: Michelle Anderson et al.
Publisher: Glenco/McGraw-Hill, 2012

Units of Study

Introduction – Scientific Problem Solving

Physical Science (PS) Unit: Forces and Motion

  • Content 1: Forces – “Forces have magnitude and direction.”
  • Content 2: Energy – “There are different types of potential energy.”
  • Content 3: Fields – “Forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.”

Earth and Space Science (ESS) Unit: Physical Earth

  • Content 1: Earth’s Interior – “The composition & properties of Earth’s interior are identified by the behavior of seismic waves.”
  • Content 2: Plate Tectonics – “Earth’s crust consists of major and minor tectonic plates that move relative to each other.”
  • Content 3: Geologic Processes – “A combination of constructive & destructive geologic processes formed Earth’s surface.”
  • Content 4: Geologic Record – “Evidence of dynamic changes of Earth’s surface through time is found in the geologic record.”

Life Science (LS) Unit: Species and Reproduction

  • Content 1: Reproduction – “Reproduction is necessary for the continuation of every species.”
  • Content 2: Genetics – “The characteristics of an organism are a result of inherited traits received from the parent(s).”
  • Content 3: Evolution – “Diversity of species occurs through gradual processes over many generations. Fossil records provide evidence that changes have occurred in number and type of species.”
Biology

Biology is a ninth-grade course in the high school science curriculum. Students use a variety of classroom and laboratory exercises to develop scientific knowledge, critical thinking, and the ability to perform scientific research. This course investigates the composition, diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Students engage in laboratory investigations to understand and explain the behavior of living things in a variety of scenarios that incorporate scientific reasoning, analysis, communication skills, and real-world applications.

Textbook:
Title: Modern Biology
Authors: John H. Postlethwait & Janet L. Hopson
Publisher: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 2012

Units of Study

Unit: Diversity and Interdependence of Life
• Classification systems are frameworks created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms.
• Ecosystems
• Homeostasis
• Carrying capacity
• Equilibrium and disequilibrium

Unit: Cells
• Cell structure and function
• Structure, function and interrelatedness of cell organelles
• Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells
• Cellular processes
• Characteristics of life regulated by cellular processes
• Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, cellular respiration
• Cell division and differentiation

Unit: Heredity
• Cellular genetics
• Structure and function of DNA in cells
• Genetic mechanisms and inheritance
• Mutations

Unit: Evolution
• Mechanisms
• Natural selection
• Mutation
• History of life on Earth
• Diversity of Life
• Speciation and biological classification based on molecular evidence
• Variation of organisms within a species due to population genetics and gene frequency

Biology includes interrelationships of living organisms, levels of biological organization, human biology, social implications, biochemistry, ecology, and genetics. Extensive laboratory work and problem-solving are essential components of this class.

By the end of this course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain the steps of the scientific process and demonstrate safe laboratory procedures.
2. Describe the structure & function of a cell and its organelles.
3. Explain the processes of photosynthesis & cellular respiration.
4. Explain the steps of cell division & cell reproduction.
5. Explain the fundamentals of genetics & inheritance.
6. Illustrate the process of DNA replication and protein synthesis.
7. List and describe the major kingdoms of living organisms.
8. Explain the theory of evolution.
9. Explain the structure & function of the major body systems in humans.

Science Inquiry & Application

During the years of grades 9-12, all students must use the following scientific processes with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:
• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;
• Design and conduct scientific investigations;
• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;
• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);
• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and
• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

Chemistry

Chemistry is a high school level course taken by tenth graders which satisfies the Ohio Core science graduation requirements.  This course introduces students to key concepts and theories that provide a foundation for further study in other sciences as well as advanced science disciplines.   Chemistry comprises a systematic study of the predictive physical interactions of matter and subsequent events that occur in the natural world.  The study of matter through the exploration of classification, its structure and its interactions is how the course is organized.

Laboratory Investigations are used to understanding and explain the behavior of matter in a variety of inquiry and design scenarios that incorporate scientific reasons, analysis, communication skills and real-world applications.

Textbook:

Title: Chemistry: Matter and Change
Authors: Buthelezi, Dingrando, Hainen, Wistrom and Zike
Publisher: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2013

Title: Chemistry in the Community
Authors: Henry Heikkinen
Publisher: American Chemical Society, 2011

Units of Study

  1. Matter
  2. Phases of Matter
  3. Periodic Table Organization
  4. Atomic Model
  5. Chemical Bonding/Chemical reactions
  6. Naming Compounds
  7. Solubility/Saturation
  8. Acids and bases/ pH
  9. Stoichiometry
  10. Nuclear Chemistry
  11. Organic Chemistry – Hydrocarbons
  12. Biochemistry

Science Inquiry & Application
During the years of grades 9-12, all students must use the following scientific processes with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:

  • Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct scientific investigations;
  • Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;
  • Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);
  • Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and
  • Communicate and support a scientific argument.
Physics

Physics is a high school level course taken in eleventh or twelfth grade which satisfies the Ohio Core science graduation requirement. Physics elaborates on the study of the key concepts of motion, forces and energy as they relate to increasingly complex systems and applications that will provide a foundation for further study in science and scientific literacy.
Students engage in laboratory investigations to understand and explain motion, forces and energy in a variety of inquiry and design scenarios that incorporate scientific reasoning, analysis, communication skills and real-world application.

Textbook:
Title: Conceptual Physics
Author: Paul G. Hewitt
Publisher: Pearson, 2009

Units of Study

Ch. 2 Newton’s First Law of Motion
Ch. 3 Linear Motion
Ch. 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Ch. 5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
Ch. 6 Momentum
Ch. 7 Energy
Ch 8 Rotational Motion
Ch 9 & 10 Gravity and Projectile Motion
Ch 19-31 (various sections) Sound, Light, Electricity & Magnetism

Advanced Biology

Advanced Biology includes interrelationships of living organisms, levels of biological organization, human biology, social implications, biochemistry, ecology, and genetics. Advanced Biology is a rigorous detail-oriented course for 9th graders that covers topics in an in-depth manner at a fast pace and has high expectations of student work. Laboratory work and problem-solving are essential components of this class. Students should expect daily homework and outside reading. Learning will take place through lecture, problem-solving, laboratory experiences, classroom discussions, demonstrations, text readings, projects, and video assignments. Assessments require in-depth and complete detailed knowledge of each topic.

Advanced, highly motivated students can opt to take an intensive Honors version of the course which involves additional teacher-guided independent study and homework in each of the areas covered and considerable outside of classwork into topics not covered in class. This can be an independent pathway to taking the SAT II advanced test in Biology at the end of the year.

Textbook:
Title: Modern Biology
Authors: Postlethwait and Hopson
Publisher: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, 2012

Units of Study

Unit 1 – Foundations of Biology
1. The Science of Life
2. Chemistry of Life
3. Biochemistry

Unit 2 – Cell Biology
1. Cell Structure and Function
2. Homeostasis and Cell Transport
3. Photosynthesis
4. Cellular Respiration
5. Cell Reproduction

Unit 3 – Genetics and Biotechnology
1. Fundamentals of Genetics
2. DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
3. Gene Expression
4. Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics
5. DNA Technology

Unit 4 – Evolution
1. History of Life
2. Theory of Evolution
3. Population Genetics and Speciation
4. Classification of Organisms

By the end of this course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain in detail and critically analyze the major concepts of biology and how they interact with each other.
2. Critically analyze data related to the foundation topics of biology and formulate and test hypotheses.
3. Describe the structure & function of a cell and its organelles including detailed pathways, unique organelles, and associations with disease.
4. List and explain the details for the photosynthesis & cellular respiration pathways including all the details of every sub-stage of these pathways. Understand all the interrelationships between these pathways.
5. Explain and do detailed drawings and explanations for the steps of cell division & cell reproduction.
6. Explain all the details associated with cancer and treatments for cancer.
7. Understand all the details of spermatogenesis and oogenesis and their connection to diseases.
8. Understand advanced mendelian and non-mendelian genetics & inheritance.
9. Illustrate the details of every step of the process of DNA replication and protein synthesis.
10. Understand and explain the details of gene expression including the biology of disease.
11. List and describe the major kingdoms of living organisms and provide detailed information about each kingdom.
12. Explain the theory of evolution using details, examples, and experimental systems.
13. Apply the concepts of natural selection in a detailed way using specific examples.
14. Use computational biology to explain concepts in genetics, population biology, and biotechnology.
15. Understand and be able to explain in detail biotechnology and its uses in gene expression, genetics, disease, and current research.

Science Inquiry & Application
During the years of grades 9-12, all students must use the following scientific processes with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:
• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;
• Design and conduct scientific investigations;
• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;
• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);
• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and
• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

Advanced Chemistry

This is a college preparatory course in which we will study the structure, composition, and properties of matter and the chemical changes that matter undergoes. This course is for the student who plans to pursue a college career in a science or math field or a student who wants to keep that option open. This course is rigorous, and students should expect daily homework and outside reading. Learning will take place through lectures, problem-solving, laboratory experiences, classroom discussions, demonstrations, text readings, and homework assignments. There will be approximately 14 – 16 laboratory experiences throughout the year. Students who complete Advanced Chemistry will be well prepared for AP Chemistry.

Textbook:

Title: Chemistry: Matter and Change
Authors: Buthelezi, Dingrando, Hainen, Wistrom and Zike
Publisher: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2013

Units of Study:
1– Introduction to Chemistry
2 – Math Tools
3 – Properties and Classification of Matter
4 – The Atom
5 – Nuclear Chemistry & Radioactivity
6 – Electrons in the Atom
7 – The Periodic Table
8 – Chemical Bonding, Compounds & their Formulas
9 – The Mole & Gram-Mole Conversions
10 – Chemical Equations & Reactions
11 – Stoichiometry
12 – Phases of Matter
13 – Solutions
14 – Acids & Bases

Science Inquiry & Application
During the years of grades 9-12, all students must use the following scientific processes with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:

  • Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;
  • Design and conduct scientific investigations;
  • Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;
  • Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);
  • Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and
  • Communicate and support a scientific argument.
Advanced Placement Physics I: Machanics (Algebra Based)

AP Physics I: Mechanics is equivalent to a one-semester, algebra-based, college-level physics course, especially appropriate for students planning to specialize or major in any scientific field. The course explores topics related to all types of motion and introductory circuits. Algebra and trigonometry are used throughout the course.

Understanding of the basic principles involved and the ability to apply these principles in the solution of problems will be the major goal of the course. Consequently, the course will utilize guided inquiry and student-centered learning to foster the development of critical thinking skills.

The AP Physics course will also include 16-20 hands-on laboratory investigations which are comparable to introductory college-level general physics laboratories, with a minimum of four laboratory investigations per quarter. Each student will compile and maintain a lab notebook or portfolio of lab reports that can be used to demonstrate the level of rigor of this AP Physics course to colleges and universities. This course is authorized by the College Board’s Advanced Placement program. As this is a college level course, students should expect to spend significant amounts of time learning and studying outside of class time. The course is rigorous and primarily suitable for very serious, motivated, and hard-working high school students.

Textbook:

Title: College Physics: A Strategic Approach, 3rd Edition
Authors: Knight, Jones & Field
Publisher: Pearson, 2014

Units of Study:

1: Kinematics

  • 1-D Motion
  • 2-D Motion
  • Circular Motion

2: Forces

  • Newton’s Laws
  • Gravitation and Orbits

3: Rotational Motion

  • Angular Quantities
  • Torque
  • Statics and Dynamic Equilibrium

4: Momentum & Impulse

  • Impulse-Momentum Theorem
  • Conservation of Momentum – Collisions

5: Energy

  • Energy
  • Conservation of Energy
  • Work & Power

6: Oscillations & Waves

  • Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Properties of Waves
  • Sound Waves

7: Electricity

  • Electrostatics

DC Circuits

Advanced Placement Physics C: Mechanics (Algebra Based)

AP Physics C: Mechanics is equivalent to a one-semester, calculus-based, college-level physics course, especially appropriate for students planning to specialize or major in physical science or engineering. The course explores topics such as kinematics; Newton’s laws of motion; work, energy, and power; systems of particles and linear momentum; circular motion and rotation; and oscillations and gravitation. Thorough knowledge of algebra and basic trigonometry is required for the course. Understanding the basic principles involved and the ability to apply these principles in the solution of problems will be the major goal of the course. Consequently, the course will utilize guided inquiry and student-centered learning to foster the development of critical thinking skills. Introductory differential and integral calculus are used throughout the course. The Physics C: Mechanics course will also include approximately 10-12 hands-on laboratory experiments comparable to introductory college-level physics laboratories, with a minimum of five laboratory investigations per quarter. Each student will compile and maintain a lab notebook or portfolio of lab reports that can be used to demonstrate the level of rigor of this AP Physics C course to colleges and universities. This course is authorized by the College Board’s Advanced Placement Program.

Textbook:
Title: Fundamentals of Physics, 10th ed Authors: Halliday, Resnick and Walker Publisher: Wiley Press, 2014
Units of Study: Newtonian Mechanics Kinematics 1-D motion 1.5 weeks Vectors 1.0 weeks 2-D motion 1.5 weeks Newton’s Laws of Motion 3.0 weeks Work, Energy, and Power 2.0 weeks Systems of Particles, Linear Momentum 2.0 weeks Rotation 2.0 weeks Angular momentum 2.0 weeks Oscillations and Gravitation 2.0

weeks Review 1.0 weeks Total: 18.0 weeks

Advanced Placement Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism

AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism is a one-semester, calculus-based, college-level physics course, especially appropriate for students planning to specialize or major in science or engineering. The course explores topics such as electrostatics; conductors, capacitors, and dielectrics; electric circuits; magnetic fields; and electromagnetism.

Thorough knowledge of algebra and basic trigonometry is required for the course.  Understanding of the basic principles involved and the ability to apply these principles in the solution of problems will be the major goal of the course. Consequently, the course will utilize guided inquiry and student-centered learning to foster the development of critical thinking skills. Introductory differential and integral calculus is used throughout the course.

The Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism course will also include approximately 10-12 hands-on laboratory experiments comparable to introductory college-level physics laboratories, with a minimum of five laboratory investigations per quarter. Each student will compile and maintain a lab notebook or portfolio of lab reports that can be used to demonstrate the level of rigor of this AP Physics C course to colleges and universities. This course is authorized by the College Board’s Advanced Placement program.

Textbook:

Title: Fundamentals of Physics, 10th ed

Authors: Halliday, Resnick, and Walker

Publisher: Wiley Press, 2014

Units of Study:

  1. Electricity
  1. Electrostatics 2.0 weeks
  2. Electric Fields 1.5 weeks
  3. Gauss’ Law 1.5 weeks
  4. Capacitance 1.5 weeks
  5. DC Circuits 1.5 weeks
  1. Magnetism
    1. Magnetic Fields 1.5 weeks
    2. Magnetic Fields due to Electric Currents 1.0 weeks
    3. Faraday’s Law of Induction 2.0 weeks
    4. Inductance 1.5 weeks
    5. Maxwell’s Equations 1.0 weeks
    6. Review 1.0 weeks

Total: 16.0 weeks

Advanced Placement Chemistry

AP Chemistry is a full first-year college course in general chemistry for majors. The AP Chemistry course provides students with a foundation to support future advanced course work in chemistry or other science career. AP Chemistry covers each of the following content areas: states of matter, the structure of matter, reactions, intermolecular forces and bonding, chemical reactions, kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry. Thorough knowledge of algebra and basic trigonometry is required for the course.

 

Understanding of the basic principles involved and the ability to apply these principles in the solution of problems will be the major goal of the course. Consequently, the course will utilize guided inquiry and student-centered learning to foster the development of critical thinking skills.

 

The AP Chemistry course will also include 16-20 hands-on laboratory investigations which are comparable to introductory college-level general chemistry laboratories, with a minimum of four laboratory investigations per quarter. Each student will compile and maintain a lab notebook or portfolio of lab reports that can be used to demonstrate the level of rigor of this AP Chemistry course to colleges and universities. This course is authorized by the College Board’s Advanced Placement program. As this is a college level course, students should expect to spend significant amounts of time learning and studying outside of class time. The course is rigorous and primarily suitable for very serious, motivated, and hard-working high school students.

Textbook:

Title: Chemistry: The Central Science, 12th ed.
Authors: Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murray and Woodward
Publisher: Pearson Higher Learning, 2011

Chapters of Study:

1      Introduction: Matter and Measurement

2      Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

3      Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

4      Reactions in Aqueous Solution

5      Thermochemistry

6      Electronic Structure of Atoms

7      Periodic Properties of the Elements

8      Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

9      Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

10   Gases

11   Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

12   Solids and Modern Materials

13   Properties of Solutions

14   Chemical Kinetics

15   Chemical Equilibrium

16   Acid-Base Equilibria

17   Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria

19   Chemical Thermodynamics

20  Electrochemistry

Anatomy and Physiology

This course is an in-depth and detailed investigation into the areas of vertebrate anatomy and physiology.  In most cases the focus of the course will be on human anatomy and physiology and human disease although the course will touch on some areas of veterinary anatomy and physiology.   Learning will take place through lecture, problem solving, discussion, class demonstrations, video lessons, lab experiences and projects, workbook assignments and homework.

The focus of the course is medical and includes a study of organ system disease and diseases caused by bacteria, fungi parasites and viruses and injury.  The course investigates common human disease processes and medical physiology for all the topics covered.  Students will gain an understanding of human medicine and disease and become familiar with both normal vital signs and normal functioning of human organ systems and what happens to organ system function due to disease / illness.

Advanced highly motivated students can opt to take an intensive Honors/ AP Biology version of the course which involves additional teacher guided independent study and homework in each of the areas covered and considerable outside of class work into topics and laboratory experiences not covered in class. This can be an independent pathway to taking the AP Biology exam at the end of the year.

Textbook:

Title:  Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Author: Marieb; Keller
Publisher: Pearson, 2018

Title: Anatomy & Physiology workbook

Units of Study

  1. Medical terminology
  2. Anatomical orientation terminology
  3. Cell biology
  4. Cellular energy
  5. Cell reproduction including an in-depth examination of cancer
  6. DNA and biotechnology,
  7. Skeletal System
  8. Muscular System
  9. Cardiovascular System
  10. Lymphatic/ Immune System
  11. Digestive System
  12. Integumentary System
  13. Nervous System
  14. Urinary System
  15. Computational Biology
Health

Health is a comprehensive course designed to promote wellness, health literacy, and positive health behavior in young adults. CTA students take Health for 1 semester in 9th grade.  Students learn about physical, mental and social health, the human body and how to make healthy decisions for everyday life. Emphasis is placed on classroom discussion, as well as class activities that explore how everything around us affects our health and well-being.

 

Textbook:

Title: Glencoe Health
Author: Mary Bronson
Publisher: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2011

Units of Study

  • Mental and Emotional Health
    • Stress management
    • Depression
    • Self-esteem
  • Social Health
    • Relationships
    • Bullying
  • Physical Health
    • Nutrition and Physical Activity
      • Food choices
      • Exercise habits
      • Eating disorders
    • Personal Care and Body Systems
    • Human Sexuality: Growth and Development
      • Reproductive systems
      • Menstruation & pregnancy
      • Sexually transmitted infections and diseases (STIs & STDs)
    • Drugs, Alcohol & Tobacco
      • Substance identification
      • Substance abuse
      • Driving under influence (DUI)

National Health Education Benchmarks

  • Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention
  • Analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology and other factors on health behaviors
  • Demonstrate the ability to use decision-making and goal-setting skills to enhance health
  • Demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors
  • Demonstrate the ability to advocate for your health

Video

Beyond Textbook Knowledge to Succeed 

Growth Mindset – Definition

Resources

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